Delhi, the focus of the socio-economic and political life of India, a symbol of ancient values and aspirations and capital of the largest democracy, is assuming increasing eminence among the great cities of the world.
Growing at an unprecedented pace, the city needs to be able to integrate its elegant past as well as the modern developments into an organic whole, which demands a purposeful transformation of the socio-economic, natural and built environment. The city will be a prime mover and nerve centre of ideas and actions, the seat of national governance and a centre of business, culture, education and sports.
Apart from critical issues such as land, physical infrastructure, transport, ecology and environment, housing, socio-cultural and other institutional facilities, the cornerstone for making Delhi a world-class city is the planning process itself and related aspects of governance and management. This needs a co-ordinated and integrated approach amongst several agencies involved with urban services and development along with a participatory planning process at local levels.
Vision-2021 is to make Delhi a global metropolis and a world-class city, where all the people would be engaged in productive work with a better quality of life, living in a sustainable environment. This will, amongst other things, necessitate planning and action to meet the challenge of population growth and in-migration into Delhi; provision of adequate housing, particularly for the weaker sections of the society; addressing the problems of small enterprises, particularly in the unorganized informal sector; dealing with the issue of slums, up-gradation of old and dilapidated areas of the city; provision of adequate infrastructure services; conservation of the environment; preservation of Delhi's heritage and blending it with the new and complex modern patterns of development; and doing all this within a framework of sustainable development, public private and community participation and a spirit of ownership and a sense of belonging among its citizens.
The MPD-62 set out the broad vision for the development of Delhi and, with a view to realizing the development plan underlying this vision, a scheme of Large Scale Acquisition and Development of Land was also formulated. The aim of the latter was to ensure that the spatial pattern of development and use of land could conform to the development plan and infrastructure and services could be laid out to match the same. At that early stage, the process of planned development was envisaged as a public sector led process with very little private participation in terms of development of both, shelter and infrastructure services. The philosophy of public sector led growth and development process continued in general till the process of economic reforms was initiated in the early nineties. Therefore, the Master Plan for Delhi 2001 (MPD-2001) also substantially reiterated the planning process, which had been outlined in MPD-62. These plans could be seen mainly as land use plans with a three level hierarchy i.e. Master Plan, Zonal Plans and Layout Plans for specific development schemes within each zone.
The population of Delhi in 2001 was 138 lakh as against the MPD-2001 projection of 128 lakh. This has had its inevitable implications and impact in terms of shelter, including squatter settlements, and other infrastructure facilities.
Some issues that arise for consideration and are also directions for policy include:
i) Review of the scheme of large scale development and acquisition and its relevance in the present context;
ii) Alternative options for development of areas identified for urbanization in MPD- 2021;
iii) Evolving a system under which planning for, and provision of basic infrastructure could take place simultaneously with reference to (i) and (ii) above; and
iv) Involving the private sector in the assembly and development of land and provision of infrastructure services.
Keeping in view the democratic procedure and statutory obligations, the Draft Plan was prepared after obtaining the views of the public. It also included extensive consultations at the pre-planning stage by involving local bodies, Government of NCT of Delhi, public sector agencies, professional groups, resident welfare associations, elected representatives, etc.
The NCT of Delhi has been divided into 15 Zones (Divisions) designated as Zone 'A' to 'P'. Areas are approximate and the redevelopment and rezoning of the zones can be done with the approval of the Authority. Zone O (River Yamuna /River Front) and Zone “A” to “H” are in urban and mostly redevelopment of some areas is required. Maximum area of Zone “J” to “P” is agricultural land, which on implementation of Land Pooling Policy will be urbanised soon.
The Ministry of Urban development issued guidelines in 2003 for the preparation of the MPD 2021 which inter alia emphasised the need to explore alternate methods of land assembly, private sector participation, and flexible land use and development norms. The Authority also had the benefit of the reports of 12 study groups set up with experts and stakeholders on various aspects such as shelter, demography, conservation, transportation, industry, environment, mixed use, infrastructure, trade and commerce etc.
The DDA has also made presentations on the draft MPD 2021 before various forums including the Consultative Committee of Parliament, Lt Governor, Delhi, Chief Minister Delhi and the Cabinet of GNCTD and the Group of Ministers set up by the Central Government. The Draft MPD 2021 was also discussed at length in the Legislative Assembly of NCT of Delhi and the suggestions made by the members were considered and forwarded by the Delhi cabinet to the Authority and the Ministry of Urban Development for its consideration. A large number of representations received in the Ministry of Urban Development from various interest groups such as lawyer, doctors, Chartered Accountants, traders, residents, etc were also considered. Personal interaction with various interest groups as well as elected representatives including Members of Parliament, Members of Legislative assembly, Municipal Councillors were held by the Minister and Minister of state for Urban development at various points in time.
The success of Master Plan depends on conversion of the policies and strategies outlined in it into time bound development and action plans, periodic reviews and close monitoring, besides the people's will and willingness to adhere to discipline in the use of land, roads, public space and infrastructure. Any issue arising from interpretation of the provisions of this Master Plan will be settled by DDA in consultation if required with Central Government.
The Focal points of the Plan are as follows:-
1.The land pooling policy would be based on the optimum utilisation of available resources, both, public and private in land assembly, development and housing.
2. Public participation and plan implementation, decentralizing the local area planning.
3. Incentivised redevelopment with additional FAR has been envisaged as a major element of city development covering all the areas
4. Housing for poor by slum Rehabilitation, manadatory EWS housing development to the extent of 15% of permissible FAR.
5. Special emphasis on Environment by conservation of ridge and development of new green areas.
6. Regularisation of Unauthorised Colonies as per Govt. policy with services and infrastructure development.
7. To meet the growing demand of commercial activities and overcome the shortfall of available commercial space, a liberalized provision of Mixed Use in residential areas has been adopted adhering to the requisites of the environment, while
achieving better synergy between workplace, residence and transportation.
8. In Trade & Commerce, Development of Integrated Freight Complexes/Wholesale Markets at the urban periphery and District & Community Centres as facilty corridors along major transport networks
9. The Informal sector is a major source of employment of the city. Earmarking of 'Hawking' and 'No Hawking' Zones at neighbourhood and cluster levels. Provision of common basic services like toilets, water points, etc. with Involvement of NGOs envisaged.
10. Environment as a major concern and listing of prohibited Industries.Modernisation/up-gradation of existing industries. Enhancement of FAR for Industries.
11. Identification of heritage zones and archaeological parks. Development of Special Conservation plans for listed buildings and precincts.
12. The Transportation system will be developed at world class level. Road and rail based mass transport system will be implemented. A new parking policy including private sector development of parking facilities,
13. Health facilities proposed to achieve norms of 5 beds / 1000 population, enhancement of FAR for hospitals and other health facilities. Nursing Homes, clinics etc. also allowed under relaxed Mixed Use norms.
14. Educational Facilities will increase as per population enhancement, new school sites adjacent to parks / playgrounds, vocational and other educational facilities, training centres for mentally challenged to be established.
15. Disaster Management centre to be provided in each administrative zone and building regulations for safety of structures as per seismic zone.
16. Sports infrastructure for local, national and international events and Incentives provided for sports facilities and swimming pools in schools, clubs and group housing.
17. Focus on Infrastructure Development plans for Water, Power, Drainage & Solid Waste Management of Service Agencies part of MPD-2021. Alternative Sources of energy and new technology will be carried.
Availability of Urbanisable Land in NCT-Delhi for2021
Percentage of Total Area (Ha.)
Total Geographical Area-NCT Delhi
Built-up area (As per IRS IC LISS III Setellite data 1999)
Natural Features (Forest, Wild Life Sanctuary, Ridge, River Yamuna and Other Water Bodies / Drains)
Sub-Total (Built-Up + Natural Features)
Balanced land available in NCT – Delhi (1-4)
Land to be kept reserved for:
- Disposal of Solid Waste generated up to 2051 (sanitary landfill & statutory green belts)
- Metro Services / Utilities e.g. power plant, grid station water and sewerage treatment plant etc.
- Agriculture zone in NCT Delhi including dairy farming, horticulture, greenbelts etc.
Sub total – 6
Proposed / Actual Land available for urbanization (5-7)
Total urbanisable area 2021 (including built up area 1999) (2+8)
Population, which can be accommodated in 97790.90 ha. @225 PPH = 220 lakh